The SPMC Journal of Health Care Servicesis the official journal of Southern Philippines Medical Center (SPMC). It is a multi-disciplinary, peer reviewed, Open Access journal that showcases the written works of SPMC employees and other submitting authors. The journal is published twice a year. The goal of the publication is to contribute to local and international efforts to broaden the knowledge base of health care services.

SPMC Journal of Health Care Services is owned and published by Southern Philippines Medical Center (SPMC). The owner grants editorial freedom to the editors of this publication.

Information contained in the SPMC Journal of Health Care Services is intended for professionals and students of health care disciplines. Contents made available in this publication are contributions of individuals or organizations. SPMC is not responsible for the accuracy of any data used in coming up with the contents reported in the articles.

The views and opinions expressed by the authors of individual articles in the SPMC Journal of Health Care Services are their own and do not reflect the official position of SPMC. Contents in this publication shall not be used to disregard or replace the advise of a qualified medical professional. SPMC shall not be held liable for any damages resulting from the use or inability to use the contents of the SPMC Journal of Health Care Services.


Editor in Chief
Alvin Concha

Issue editors
Pamela Lacuesta
Mark Anthony Tom

Associate editors
Christine May Astudillo
Seurinane Sean Española
Rodel Roño
Alex Ivan Junefourth Bolor

Managing editor
Clarence Xlasi Ladrero

Assistant editor
Jaryll Gerard Ampog

Layout editor
Clarence Xlasi Ladrero

Article editors
Billie Jean Cordero
Neila Batucan
Claudine Pineda-Ocsio
Jesse Jay Baula

Ludivina Porticos (Intern)
Michael Casas (Intern)
Jessy Mae Panggoy (Intern)
Jay Lord Canag (Intern)
Amariz Zarate (Intern)
Nestle Arguilla (Intern)

May Kathryn Lazaro (Intern)
Elsa May Baron (Intern)
Jasmen Pasia (Intern)
Aileen Ang (Intern)
Fatima Tesoro (Intern)
Yasmine Avila (Intern)


Fitzgerald Cabahug Arancel

Southern Philippines Medical Center

Vicente Belizario Jr

University of the Philippines College of Public Health

Noel Espallardo

New Marketlink Pharmaceutical Corporation

Noel Juban

University of the Philippines Manila

Lynette Lu Lasala

Southern Philippines Medical Center

Zorayda Leopando

University of the Philippines – Philippine General Hospital

Leopoldo Vega

Southern Philippines Medical Center

Ma. Elinore Alba-Concha

Southern Philippines Medical Center

Jose Florencio Lapeña

World Association of Medical Editors

Anthony Sales

Department of Science and Technology


Copyright © 2019 Southern Philippines Medical Center.
ISSN (Print): 2012-3183. ISSN (Online): 2467-5962
All rights reserved.